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EFFECT OF CANNABINOIDS IN GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM (GIS) AND GIS DISEASES
 
Cannabis plant extracts "Cannabis sativa" were widely used in ancient medicine for gastrointestinal tract (GIS) diseases. Despite the advances in the treatment of chronic gastrointestinal diseases, treatment efficacy cannot reach adequate levels in some patients. As a result of this desperation, some patients have turned to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Recently, our knowledge of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which controls tissue homeostasis with the help of endogenous cannabinoids and their receptors, has increased considerably, and also enables the use of herbal and synthetic cannabinoid compounds. Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, endocannabinoids, play a role in maintaining GIS motility, secretions, and epithelial barrier integrity. In addition, other receptors such as TRPV1 (Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 1), PPAR-α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha), GPR55 (G-protein coupled receptor) and GPR119 contribute significantly to the effects of cannabinoids in the intestines and They determine the course of intestinal inflammation and colon cancer. They are involved in the regulation of food intake, nausea and vomiting, gastric secretion and gastroprotection, gastrointestinal motility, ion transport, sensory state of internal organs, gut inflammation, and cell proliferation in the gut. The ECS (i.e. endogenous circulating cannabinoids) perform protective activities in the GIS and is promising against various GIS disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (especially Crohn's disease), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), secretion and motility disorders. Clinical, biochemical and pathophysiological patterns have been demonstrated in GIS disorders suggesting clinical endocannabinoid deficiency. Although there are supportive findings in the literature regarding the use of cannabis for the treatment of GIS disorders, the clinical efficacy of cannabis and its components in various GIS disorders remains unclear. Recent studies have revealed that Cannabinoids are well known modulators of intestinal motility and visceral pain, and exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical research suggests that cannabinoid therapy may have a therapeutically important role in the treatment of nausea and vomiting, and GIS motility disorders in the IBD and the IBS. Cannabinoids can be effective in relieving symptoms such as pain, nausea, and loss of appetite in Crohn's disease. They can normalize dysmotility and reduce pain in the IBS and reduce inflammation in IBD, and play a role in regulating cell regeneration as well as alleviating some symptoms in colorectal cancer.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Cannabinoids, Gastrointestinal System (GIS), GIS Disease